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13 interesting facts about Kimonos that you may not know

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Old and new Japan Minasan Kon'nichiwa! Many of us would know that Japan is famous for its advances in technology, geographic and historic landmarks and number of writers and artists. Japan is also well known for it’s food, culture and fashion! Despite the many trends and fashion Japan has, we will be touching mainly on Kimonos to showcase this traditional and beautiful culture that a few Japanese females still adopt in their culture today.

We hope you will find some interesting facts here.

*Disclaimer, our facts are found from different sources.

Inspiration of Kimono

Kimono

Did you know the kimono's form was first introduced from China as underclothes? Found from encyclopedia, during the Muromachi period (1392 - 1568), both men and women wore it underneath before getting dressed.

Another known name

浴衣

Initially, the kimono adapted another name called ‘gofuku’ as stated in Wikipedia, “(呉服, literally clothes of Wu (吳)” this name came about due to the heavy influence in the Han Dynasty.

First appearance

Home life in Japan

As stated in Wikipedia, it first arrived in Japan during the Jomon period (14,5000 B.C. - 300 B.C.), with no discrepancy between man and women.

Kimono’s translation

Geishas

Another interesting fact found from encyclopedia, the term Kimono, directly translate to “Thing to Wear”. In order to differentiate Japanese clothing from Western clothing, the word Kimono became more popular in Japan during the 19th century.

Materials required

Different ways of tying the Obi (kimono belt), Japan

Found from Wikipedia, this traditional attire requires sashes and a wide obi to put it in place. Apart from that, accessories and ties are also crucial to complete the proper look.

Women’s Daily Kimono

Swinging sleeves Kimono

Did you know that judging from the pattern and the colour on the fabric, we would be able to see how formal the kimono is. Aside from that, longer sleeves indicates that they are usually younger women who are not married yet. (Wikipedia)

Tradition Bride’s Kimono

Overrobre (Uchikake) with design of Books and Mandian Orange Branchs (Japanese)

As stated in encyclopedia, the most formal Kimono of all, is known as the Uchikake. The bride would usually need assistance due to the length and the stiffness of the Uchikake. The Uchikake is a really long coast of Kimono, padded with a thickset of woven brocade/ satin.

Dress Code for Events

Dresscode for Women

Indeed there is another type of Kimono, also called Houmongi! It can be worn to weddings or events. There is also a name for the pattern on the Kimono called, Eba, a type of dyeing method across the Kimono. Also found from encyclopedia.

Mens wear

Man & Woman in Kimono, Old Japan

Fear not, there is a male section of Kimonos too! As read from Wikipedia, men’s Kimono are however standardize to one shape and pretty mellow in terms of colors. To know how formal their Kimonos are, we can judge base on the type and colour of accessories. Silk was definitely the most enticing material used.

Formal Mens wear

Dresscode for Men

If there are 5 Kamon (Family crests) on their Kimono, it portrays extreme formality.

The formal mens Kimono would be in plain black silk with 5 crests, also known as Monsuke (with crests).

Generations to generations

Generations to Generations

Kimono has such a deep tradition in Japan that even up till today, the art of assembling the Kimono is still passed on from mothers to daughters. Today, this art is also taught in schools to benefit women. (Wikipedia)

Seasonal Fashion (Just like high fashion)

An example of a seasonal kimono

Indicated from Wikipedia, the Japanese Kimono changes in relation to their seasons. Lined Kimonos (Awase), are worn during cooler months. Whereas Light cotton, Yukata are worn during the spring and summer by both genders. During warmer weather, the designs would be more vibrant with floral patterns.

Hole in wallet

Kimono

We also found from Wikipedia that a woman's kimono may easily exceed US$10,000?? A complete kimono outfit inclusive of: A kimono, undergarments, obi, ties, socks, sandals and accessories can exceed US$20,000.

 

Done by: Joey Lee & KangJing

Stilldigging News - Two Women and their Place in Society

Part-time reporter Mojojojo from Stilldigging News spots two women from different cultures having an intellectual debate about who is better. He goes closer to find out. This is actually a quirky, witty representation of Women’s rights in Early Vedic India (1500-500 BCE, then Laws of Manu in 200-400 CE) and Ancient Mongolia in the 13th century. It is based on actual facts but with a little local modern twist (and a bit of Singlish). Although, it may sound a little biased on either side but we should always take to account the subjectivity of oral accounts when people talk about their own culture. Enjoy!

Death has a favourite colour

Death has a favourite colour

Hello everyone, for our last post we will be creating a character to represent the infamous plague, the Black Death. There have been quite a number of plague’s in history, but we will be focusing on the Black Death, which took place in Europe in the 13th century, and we will be portraying him as a blogger on Tumblr! “The Black Death” has reappeared and would like to educate the internet about his amazing journey through Europe and the people he met!

Slaves Unite!

In ancient Egypt, slavery was prevalent. However, theory and practice of slavery in Egypt was considered different from those of Greece, Rome, or the southern states of America in the ancient days. Slaves in Egypt were either prisoners of war or traded by slave merchants (debt slaves), however, both types of slaves were allowed to be free after serving for a certain period of time. Some of the slaves who came originally from Egypt were often children from poor families who were sold into slavery. While the rest of the slaves were people from Meroe and Kush, south of Egypt and Libya.

As we learnt in our Egyptian lecture, it was presumed that thousands of slaves toiled under hard conditions to build the pyramids. However, it was later realised that the builders of the pyramids were free Egyptians who committed themselves to the building project. So then, what were slaves for in Ancient Egypt? Slaves in Egypt were mainly fieldworkers. However, there were also other types of slaves such as house cleaners, nannies, wet nurses, cooks, skilled dancers, musicians and accountants. A master might employ a slave for domestic uses such as guardians of their children, brewers and maids or for other outdoor uses such as gardeners. Slaves might also be required for trading aids whereby the slave would have to learn how to excel in trading. Educated slaves could also become managers of their master’s estate.

So, as part of our third blog post, we decided to “stalk” a private Facebook group of the ancient Egyptian slaves. Do visit the link below to get an insight of the daily lives of some of the slaves mentioned above. The history of slaves dates back to the Old Kingdom in the Third Dynasty around 2670 BC all the way to the New Kingdom in 1544 BC, with a surge of Hebrews becoming slaves, coming in during the Middle Kingdom due to the drought in Europe. They had been enslaved for about 400 years. The historians however, have been unable to pinpoint exactly how different slaves are treated between each of these time periods. Thus for easy understanding, this Facebook group will be set in about 14th century BC.

Please click on the link below to view the Facebook Group!

http://www.classtools.net/FB/1843-nNk8ty

Reflection:

Through this post, we learnt that the slaves in Ancient Egypt did not all have the same plight due to some historical underpinnings. For example, the Hebrews. Different types of slaves led different types of lives. Some of them were slaves voluntarily while others were forced. The diversity in the lives they led was a result of the different personal issues that they faced. We chose the Facebook portal to convey this content on Ancient Egyptian slaves as we imagined how they would have expressed their sentiments through informal  anecdotal reflections with other slaves in their  community.

References:

http://www.bl.uk/learning/cult/inside/goldhaggadahstories/enslave/enslavement.html

http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/timelines/topics/food.htm

http://www.theguardian.com/culture/2015/dec/21/egyptian-pharaoh-tutankhamuns-wet-nurse-might-have-been-his-sister

http://news.ku.dk/all_news/2012/2012.12/ancient_egyptians_sold_themselves_into_temple_slavery/

http://histclo.com/act/work/slave/anc/sa-egypt.html

Image references:

http://www.not-of-this-earth.com/Ancient_Egyptian_Culture_5.html

http://www.bl.uk/learning/cult/inside/goldhaggadahstories/enslave/enslavement.html  

http://factsanddetails.com/world/cat56/sub365/item1943.html

http://creation.com/egypt-chronology

http://www.bible-history.com/sketches/egypt/made-slaves.html

http://www.hermajestytheking.com/cookies-and-cakes.htm

http://www.historyforkids.net/egyptian-slaves.html

Tutrrific - The Life of the Boy King

Fellow Historians! Ever wondered what it would be like if ancient Pharaohs of Egypt used Instagram! Well, we thought we would give you a glimpse of King Tut’s Instagram! Pharaoh Tutankhamun Nebkheperure, more popularly known as King Tut, was the boy King who is regarded as the symbol of restoration in ancient Egypt. During his 9-year reign from 1332 to 1323 B.C.E, he became popular for reviving polytheism in Egypt after his father (or half-brother, historians are not really sure) forced Egyptians to pray only to a single deity, Aten, the Sun Disk. The story goes that King Tut creates his own Instagram account on his 7th birthday! As a young boy, he finds joy and even solace in documenting important events during his years and updates his ‘good people of Egypt’ on what happens within the kingdom. Occasionally, he shares his happiness and sorrows with them. As historians, we are fascinated by the documented details of the Egyptian life ranging from festivals and funerals. King Tut dictates all of these through his eyes and opinions giving you an insider’s view of Ancient Egypt!

Follow King Tut on his Instagram account ‘tutrrific’ and discover ancient Egyptians way of living through the eyes of a royal. Understand the difficulties he faced being the son of a tyrant Pharaoh and his thoughts and emotions when he becomes a very young Pharaoh himself. Follow, like and even leave comments on his posts! Who knows, he might even reawaken from the dead to reply you!

DISCLAIMER: While the events and time periods are factual, the writing in these posts are fictional and are meant for entertainment as well. Feel free to check out the sources to learn more about the events discussed in each post with the summaries of each post given below!

Link to King Tut's Instagram Account: https://www.instagram.com/tutrrific/

Post 1: Tutankhaten’s first post as a 7 year old boy, talking about celebrating his birthday and sharing his thoughts about worshiping gods (which will later be part of one of the milestones in his life)

Post 2: Tutankhaten describes the destruction his father Akhenaten has brought upon religious sites in Egypt, as he orders everyone to worship the sun god Aten

Post 3: Akhenaten dies and  Tutankhaten describes his funeral as well as ancient Egyptian funereal practices. Young Tutankhamen also reveals the new successor of the Egypt who seems very suspicious. 

Post 4: Tutankhaten marries Ankhesenamun, who was his half-sister. His post looks at the time he has known her and how she has changed.

Post 5: Tutankhamun officially becomes Pharaoh. Some time later, he changes his name to Tutankhamun to honour the god Amun. He reflects on what he plans to for Egypt during his reign and even mentions a little about his coronation ceremony.

Post 6: Tutankhamun complains about how much make-up his wife uses. Here he ponders the utility of kohl, the black substance that ancient Egyptians used to line their eyes.

Post 7: Tutankhamun goes about restoring things in Egypt to how they were before Akhenaten’s rule, in both physical structure and traditional practices. He becomes the symbol of “ma’at”, what the Egyptians called “the proper order of things

Post 8: Tutankhamun talks about the festivals and events that Egyptians celebrate in the first month of their calendar, which  includes the birthday of the Sun God and the procession of Osiris

Post 9: King Tut had no heirs as Ankhesenamun gave birth to premature babies that died soon after birth. He reveals his inner sorrow at losing his own flesh and blood

Post 10: Tutankhamun succumbs to illness and dies, leaving his wife to announce his death on his Instagram account. His death was due to a gangrenous leg wound, possibly caused by his fractured leg bone piercing his skin. 

Post 11: The Egyptians believed in an Afterlife and Tutankhamun is updating his Instagram from the tomb to prove it’s existence...and at the same time dispel popular descriptions of what the Afterlife is like.

Post 12: An angry and still very dead Tutankhamun revives his supposedly dead Instagram to vent his anger after finding out Ankhesenamun has married his Grand Vizier Ay, who may, in a disturbing turn of events, be Ankhesenamun’s grandfather.

Meanwhile in China: Wonder what's happening in Rome!

Over the semester, we have learnt about so many different civilizations and their happenings. So, we decided to create a timeline that merges three of these civilizations together, so that we can all learn about the chronological order of the happenings around the world! Like, during the Dark Ages of Rome, when life seemed all so gloomy because of the harsh conditions and tight supply of food, China was under the reign of the Zhou Dynasty and in the midst of the Warring States period. This period is more commonly known to us as the Romance of the Three Kingdoms. (So now you'll know that while you are starving in Rome, your long lost brother who migrated to China is currently fighting it out.) We got pretty intrigued about the various happenings around the world as civilizations begin to emerge and so, we compiled this timeline of Greece, Rome and China. After doing so, we realized that the period of 1000 BCE - 1 CE has the most happenings! Click HERE to see the timeline!

Seven Ancient Wonders: The Travel Guide

Most people these days heard about the modern take on the seven wonders of the world, including the Taj Mahal at India and the Colosseum at Rome, Italy. However, less is widely known about the original seven wonders of the ancient world such as the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus and the Colossus of Rhodes. For our final blogpost, we present a travel guide to the seven wonders of the ancient world. Check out our travel guide and join us in our journey exploring the mysterious nature of the seven ancient wonders. Click Here: https://madmagz.com/magazine/772289 

Image Credits (in order of appearance in the magazine)

Cover page:

Cappadocia, Turkey, TravelCC0

Editor's note page:

Street Dessert Road Sand,CC0

Content Page:

Red and Blue Hot Air BalloonsCC0

City Houses Village BuildingsCC0

Road Sky Clouds, Cloudy, CC0

2-Page map:

Seven Wonders of the Ancient WorldCC BY-SA 3.0

The Great Pyramid of Giza

Great Pyramid of Giza, EgyptCC BY-SA 3.0

All Giza Pyramids, CC BY-SA 2.0

Great Pyramid of Giza,  CC BY-SA 3.0

Statue of Khufu in the Cairo Egyptian Museum, Wikimedia, public domain

Giza Pyramid ComplexCC BY-SA 3.0

Comparison of approximate profiles of some pyramidal or near-pyramidal buildings, CC BY-SA 3.0

Giza Plateau ,  CC BY-SA 4.0-3.0-2.5-2.0-1.0

Great Sphinx of Giza, EgyptCC-BY-SA-2.5

The Grand Gallery , CC BY-SA 3.0

The Hanging Garden of Babylon

The Hanging Garden of Babylonpublic domain

Hanging Gardens of Babylon, 20th-century interpretation , public domain via wikimedia

The Hanging Garden of Babylon, public domain

The Hanging Gardens of Babylonpublic domain

Neo-Babylonian Empirepublic domain

Hanging Gardens of Babylon, CC BY 2.0

Grammatophyllum Speciosum- Paxton's Flower Gardenpublic domain

Babylon: the hanging gardens of BabylonCC BY 4.0 

The Statue of Zeus at Olympia, Greece.

Zeus in Olympiapublic domain

Restored view of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia, Greecepublic domain

Statue of Zeuspublic domain

La statue de Zeus à Olympiepublic domain

King of the Gods, ZeusCC BY 3.0

Map of the main sanctuaries of Classical GreeceCC BY-SA 3.0

Zeus in Olympia representation on coin drawingpublic domain

Collections of the Museo archeologico nazionale (Florence)CC BY 3.0

The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus

Replica of the Temple of Artemis at TurkeyCC BY-SA 3.0

Temple of Artemispublic domain

Map of the main sanctuaries of Classical GreeceCC BY-SA 3.0

Diana of Versaillespublic domain

Ephesus Temple of ArtemisCC BY-SA 3.0

The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus

The Mausoleum at Halicarnassuspublic domain

Mausoleum at Halicarnassuspublic domain

Slab from the Amazonomachy frieze from the Mausoleum at HalicarnassusCC BY-SA 2.0

Mausoleum of HalicarnassusCC BY-SA 3.0

Melbourne war memorialCC BY-SA 3.0

Masonic Templepublic domain

The Colossus of Rhodes

Colosse de Rhodespublic domain

Helios in his chariotpublic domain

Map of the main sanctuaries of Classical GreeceCC BY-SA 3.0

Mandraki colosseus harbour rhodes, CC0

Statue of LibertyCC BY-SA 3.0

The Lighthouse of Alexandria

Lighthouse-Thierschpublic domain

Pharos of Alexandriapublic domain

The Lighthouse of Alexandria, CC BY 2.0

Miniuni Ostrava - Lighthouse of AlexandriaCC BY-SA 4.0-3.0-2.5-2.0-1.0

Pharos of Alexandria (Fischer von Erlach)public domain

Thank You Page:

City Houses Village BuildingsCC0

Back page:

Red and Blue Hot Air Balloons,CC0

Street Dessert Road SandCC0

Sevenwondersoftheworld, Wikimedia, public domain

References

Ancient History Encyclopedia (2012), The Great Pyramid of Giza: The Last Remaining Wonder of the Ancient

Ancient History Encyclopedia (2012), The Hanging Gardens of Babylon: The Mysterious Wonder of the Ancient

Ancient History Encyclopedia (2012), The Lighthouse at Alexandria: the Seventh Wonder of the Ancient World

Ancient History Encyclopedia (2012), The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus: A Tomb for a King and a Testament

Ancient History Encyclopedia (2012), The Statue of Zeus at Olympia

History.com (2009), Seven Wonders of the Ancient World

Kim, Angela (2016), It's Lit - The Lighthouse of Alexandria

Mark, Joshua. J. (2009), The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World

Nationalgeographic.com (n.d), Egypt: Secrets of an Ancient World

The British Museum (n.d), Mausoleum of Halikarnassos

The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World (n.d), The Colossus of Rhodes

UNMuseum.com (n.d). Colossus of Rhodes

UNMuseum.com (n.d). Temple of Artemis at Ephesus

The Antichrist of Rome

Salve! So in our last blog post, we thought it would be interesting to dictate diary entries for the Roman emperor Nero, during the important events of his life. He ruled the Roman Empire from 54 AD to 68 AD. He was a very eccentric guy who was self indulgent, cruel and violent. The III entries that we have composed include his mother's death, the Great Fire of Rome as well as his suicide. We hope you enjoy reading the entries of this "Great" Roman emperor. Here is the link to the Blog : http://neroclaudiuscaesar.blogspot.sg/

 

Citations

Emperor Nero. (n.d.). Retrieved April 16, 2016, from http://www.roman-empire.net/emperors/nero-index.html

Euronews. (2011, June 08). Back in the Day: Nero’s suicide. Retrieved April 15, 2016, from http://www.euronews.com/2011/06/08/back-in-the-day-neros-suicide/

History.com Staff. (2009). Nero. Retrieved April 15, 2016, from http://www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/nero

Biography.com. (n.d.). Nero. Retrieved April 15, 2016, from http://www.biography.com/people/nero-9421713#nero’s-reign

Nero. (n.d.). Retrieved April 15, 2016, from http://www.ancient.eu/Nero/

PBS. (n.d.). The Great Fire of Rome: Background. Retrieved April 16, 2016, from http://www.pbs.org/wnet/secrets/great-fire-rome-background/1446/

Image Citation

Sadeler, M. C. (2015). Nero Claudius Caesar, from set of Roman Emperors and Empresses - Aegidius Sadeler II, Marcus Christoph Sadeler, Tiziano Vecellio (Titian). Retrieved April 18, 2016, from https://art.famsf.org/aegidius-sadeler-ii/nero-claudius-caesar-set-roman-emperors-and-empresses-195545787

The Travelogue

Introduction

This creative post will expand upon the cliché of “a picture telling a thousand words”. The creative medium used is Instagram and the pictures are of historical ruins around the world which I personally find fascinating and would like to share. There are 2 rationales behind the construction of this particular post. First, it relates to the first question of the entry quiz of class 15, which asked something to the effect of where I would like to travel to. It made me remember that I would like to go to Machu Picchu someday and takes pictures with the llamas there. Second, such a post enables me to share a historical site which I visited in around June of last year, which is Ayutthaya: the old capital of Thailand.

All in all, it is hoped that this creative post will act as some sort of travelogue (although not in the strictest sense as I have only personally been to Ayutthaya). The aim, or takeaway, is to pique the interest of the readers to not only know about the sites but also to appreciate each of their unique histories. To this end, there will be a paragraph or two of descriptions/ interpretations for each individual post. The focus will be on depth - as seen by the rather lengthy individual post - over breadth. Personally, I feel that we should not just see these great relics of the past at face value, as behind each ruin lay a story to tell. Therefore, we will only do them justice if we are also able to appreciate the greater meaning these sites.

The link to the Instagram account is: https://www.instagram.com/ugc111travelogue/.

reflections

The primary aim was only to tell the unique histories behind each pictures. However, as I did them, I realized that the histories are not in any way constrained in and of itself. In other words, I find that history is not static but rather an agglomeration of themes/ ideas. For example, the post on the Buddha head not only shows the back story of the fighting that led to its present state, but also the idea of the spread of religion to faraway places. Therefore, in a way, the process of creating such a post is such that researching on one idea leads to many questions and these questions lead to many other more. This makes for an engaging process and I feel much more appreciative of each and every photos. I hope the readers will too.

Reference list (in Chronological order of post)

The Fall of Siam & the Lost Temples of Ayutthaya. (n.d.). Retrieved April 14, 2016, from http://www.thebohemianblog.com/2013/01/dark-tourism-temples-of-ayutthaya-thailand.html

Buddha Head in Tree Roots, Wat Mahathat, Ayutthaya. (2011). Retrieved April 14, 2016, from http://www.thaizer.com/tourist-attractions/buddha-head-in-tree-roots-wat-mahathat-ayutthaya/

Beginning of Buddhism in Thailand. (2008). Retrieved April 14, 2016, from https://iluvthailand.wordpress.com/2008/02/10/beginning-of-buddhism-in-thailand/

Chichen Itza Facts. (n.d.). Retrieved April 14, 2016, from https://sacredsites.com/americas/mexico/chichen_itza_facts.html

Chichen Itza -- World Heritage Site -- National Geographic. (n.d.). Retrieved April 14, 2016, from http://travel.nationalgeographic.com/travel/world-heritage/chichen-itza/

Pyramid of Kukulcan at Chich'en Itza. (n.d.). Retrieved April 14, 2016, from http://www.atlasobscura.com/places/pyramid-kukulcan-chichen-itza

The Mayan Calendar. (n.d.). Retrieved April 14, 2016, from http://www.timeanddate.com/calendar/mayan.html

Tiwanaku. (n.d.). Retrieved April 14, 2016, from http://www.bolivia-facts.com/tiwanaku.html

Tiwanaku: Spiritual and Political Centre of the Tiwanaku Culture. (n.d.). Retrieved April 14, 2016, from http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/567

Who was the Inca God of Thunder? (n.d.). Retrieved April 14, 2016, from http://latinamericanhistory.about.com/od/ancientlatinamerica/a/Chuqui-Illa-The-Inca-Thunder-God.htm

The Temple of Augustus in Pula. (n.d.). Retrieved April 14, 2016, from http://www.pulacroatia.net/item/the-temple-of-augustus-in-pula/

Croatia. (n.d.). Retrieved April 14, 2016, from http://www.lonelyplanet.com/croatia/history

Obelisk returned to Ethiopia after 68 years. (2005). Retrieved April 14, 2016, from http://www.theguardian.com/world/2005/apr/20/italy.ethiopia

Ethiopian Treasures. (n.d.). Retrieved April 14, 2016, from http://www.ethiopiantreasures.co.uk/pages/religion.htm

The Ancient Art of Kakadu - Tourism Australia. (n.d.). Retrieved April 14, 2016, from http://www.australia.com/en/places/kakadu/nt-rock-art.html

Rock art. (n.d.). Retrieved April 14, 2016, from http://www.environment.gov.au/topics/national-parks/kakadu-national-park/culture-and-history/rock-art

Epic Rap Battle: Alexander vs Cyrus vs Augustus

Screenshot-Google-Forms.jpg

Alexander the Great of Macedon, Cyrus the Great of Persia and Augustus of Rome. What do they all have in common? Said to be some of the greatest leaders to ever exist, they brought their Kingdoms and Empires to new frontiers. Their people thought they were so awesome that they earned the "Great" in their name and in Augustus's case, even a month named after him - August. So who was the top dog? Let us investigate in this Epic Rap Battle of the Greats ;) [Just a really really short background info: Alexander the Great was King of Macedonia in Ancient Greece, reigning from 336-323 BCE. Cyrus the Great of Persia was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, ruling from 559-530 BCE. Augustus was the founder of the Roman Empire (led the transition from Republic to Empire) - he reigned from 27 BCE - 14 CE]

 

So who do you think deserves to win this Epic Rap Battle? You may select a winner here in this poll! Remember, they may all have done at that time what they thought was best for their country - but we must not forget the other side of the story ;) Still, winner or loser (subjective and interpretative), they all deserve to be applauded for their bravery, loyalty and leadership - and that itself is an achievement.

References

Alexander of Macedon Alexander the Great. (n.d.). Retrieved April 07, 2016, from http://www.ancient.eu/Alexander_the_Great/ Alexander the Great. (n.d.). Retrieved April 07, 2016, from https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Alexander_the_Great Barksdale, N. (2014). 8 Surprising Facts about Alexander the Great. Retrieved April 07, 2016, from http://www.history.com/news/history-lists/eight-surprising-facts-about-alexander-the-great J. G. M.. (1933). [Review of Alexander the Great and the Unity of Mankind]. The Journal of Hellenic Studies, 53, 321–322. http://doi.org/10.2307/626410

Cyrus of Persia Cyrus II. (n.d.). Retrieved April 09, 2016, from http://www.ancient.eu/Cyrus_II/ Cyrus the Great. (n.d.). Retrieved April 09, 2016, from http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Cyrus_the_Great Mallowan, M.. (1972). Cyrus the Great (558-529 B.C.). Iran, 10, 1–17. http://doi.org/10.2307/4300460 Cyrus the Great. (n.d.). Retrieved April 09, 2016, from https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Cyrus_the_Great

Augustus of Rome History.com Staff. (2009). Emperor Augustus. Retrieved April 08, 2016, from http://www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/emperor-augustus Emperor Augustus. (n.d.). Retrieved April 08, 2016, from http://www.roman-empire.net/emperors/augustus-index.html Augustus. (n.d.). Retrieved April 09, 2016, from https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Augustus History Channel Documentary (2015, July 15). The Civil Wars and the Reign of Augutus. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YOiJPne1hr4

Introduction background images, background beats and ending voiceover: Credits to ERB, NicePeter, epicLLOYD, Dave McCary, and Maker Studios https://www.youtube.com/user/ERB/about