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Medieval Europe

Gothic Architecture - More than what meets the eye

Do you know that Big Ben, the great clock tower in London, was actually built according to the Gothic architectural style? Well, if you didn’t know before, now you do!

Max Pixel.  Building Architecture Westminster Abbey Britain . n.d. Creative Commons.

Max Pixel. Building Architecture Westminster Abbey Britain. n.d. Creative Commons.

Believed to have emerged from Northern France at around 1140 CE during the High Medieval period, Gothic architecture adopted and modified parts of the Romanesque style of architecture (which directly preceded Gothic architecture), and eventually developed into a magnificent architectural style of its own right. It spread quickly across Europe, and even to this day, its influence can be felt among many European countries, such as France, Italy, and the United Kingdom.

The Gothic style is still phenomenally popular, and it is often the preferred design for new churches and cathedrals. What makes it especially unique are its characteristic features, namely the vaulted ceilings, pointed arches, buttresses (especially arched flying buttresses) and window tracery. Besides being aesthetically-pleasing, the structural features and style of Gothic architecture also play an essential role in telling us about the historical context of Medieval Europe, particularly about its religious history.

Our Tumblr page will elaborate upon the background, history, and characteristic features of Gothic architecture. Examples of classic Gothic architectural structures will also be provided. Check out our Tumblr using this link: https://gothicarchi.tumblr.com/

Note: Reference list is provided on the tumblr webpage!

The Evil King John

King John of England(1167-1216) was undoubtedly the worst King of Medieval Europe. He was notorious for the numerous wars he fought - and failed. He also made history by becoming the first King who got excommunicated by the English Church. Lastly, he signed the Magna Carta, a document to appease his rebelling barons which became one of the most significant documents of English history today.

Studying King John gives us an insight to the cracks of the feudalism system of Medieval Europe and also helps us better understand the power struggle between the English Church and Monarchs at that time. King John is an important figure in history as he is the reason for the Magna Carta, a document which established the principle of rights to justice.

Follow King John’s Instagram account @KingJohnUGC111 to discover his eventful journey as a King. He wrote about significant events which occurred during his years and included his thoughts and feelings about them. *Disclaimer: The events which occurred are factual, however, the style of writing is fictional and meant for entertainment purposes.

 

King John's Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/kingjohnugc111/

Below is the background description of each post.

Post 1: This post shows how King John was disregarded by the family, and overshadowed by the brother. This post also talks about one of his historically recorded fails, his first expedition to Ireland.

Post 2: The second post highlights the events that lead to John’s final ascent on the throne. He tried to take over his brother, King Richard when Richard was being captured by Germans but failed and an angry Richard banished him upon return but was swiftly forgiven. Originally Richard appointed his nephew, Arthur as heir but changed it to John instead when Arthur was being captured by King Phillip II of France. This made it possible for John to become King when Richard died in 1199.

Post 3: One of the greatest challenges of King John’s reign was his dispute with King Phillip II of France. This post emphasises the causes of the dispute and the repercussions that it had on King John. Most of all, this post presented some of the reasons why he had to implement income based taxes on his people.

Post 4: Another important figure that King John had a dispute with was Pope Innocent III. We think that this incident with the Pope is another great way to present King John’s poor decision making and the power struggle between him and the church. Not only did he challenge other countries, but even a religious institution under him.

Post 5: On 15 June 1215, King John signed the Magna Carta, also known as the Great Charter. The Magna Carta was a document drawn up by the barons who rebelled against King John because he had demanded heavy taxes repeatedly to fund his unsuccessful wars with France. The document was drafted to safeguard their rights and to put limitations on the power of the crown.

Post 6: King John had no intentions to keep his word even after signing the Magna Carta. He clashed with the barons again 3 months later and they threatened to remove him from his position. This sparked the first baron's war which lasted from September 1215 to March 1216. 

Post 7: On May 21, 1216, Prince Louis of France decided to invade England. King John decided not to send his forces to fight with Prince Louis at that point of time as he was afraid that his forces might turn on him and led him to lose as a result. The post shows the process on how he handled the war with his defensive strategies.

Post 8: King John contracted a severe illness which eventually led to his death on October 19, 1216. King John decided that he will appoint his elder son, Henry, who was nine years at that point of time, to be the heir to his throne.

IMAGE CREDITS

Post 1: Matthew Paris, Portrait of King John of England, 2011. Public Domain

Post 2: Unknown, Portrait of King Richard III, 2009. Public Domain

Post 3: Horace Vernet, Battle of Bouvines, 2015. Public Domain

Post 4: Artaud de Montor, Pope Innocent III, 2016. Public Domain

Post 5: J.delanoy, Magna Carta, 2009. Public Domain

Post 6: James William Edmund Doyle, King John signs the Magna Carta, 2010. Public Domain

Post 7: Chroniques de Saint-Denis, John of England vs Louis VIII of France, 2011. Public Domain

Post 8: Matthew Paris, Coronation of Henry the Young King, 2014. Public Domain

 

REFERENCES

 

Appleby, John Tate. (1959). John, King of England. HathiTrust

BBC - History. (n.d.).  Historic Figures: John (c.1167 - 1216).

British Library. (n.d.). English translation of Magna Carta.

Church, Stephen Church. (2015). King John. Boulder: Basic Books.

Glenn, Justin. (2014). The Washingtons: A Family History: Volume 3: Royal Descents of the Presidential Branch. Savas Publishing, p139.

Metzger, Scott Alan. (2010). Magna Carta: Teaching Medieval Topics for Historical Significance. The History Teacher, 43(3), 345-356.

Sommerville, Johann. (n.d.). The crisis of John's reign.

The Old Currency Exchange. (2015). John’s 1st Expedition to Ireland (as Lord of Ireland, 1185).

Trueman, Chris. (2016). King John. The History Learning Site.

Warren, Wilfred Lewis. (1978). King John. University of California Press, p1167-1216.

Masculinity in Medieval Europe

Masculinity in Medieval Europe

Perhaps it has been a universal fact that women lacked basic rights back in the days, we cannot disagree with that, but did this mean that things were easy for men? To become a man is one thing, but to be respected and to be seen as masculine, they had a price to pay.

Write, Pray, Love

Write, Pray, Love
If I am remembered, it will be for this: that I was loved by Heloise. - Peter Abelard

Good old-fashioned love letters reveal the passionate yet tragic love story between Abelard and Heloise. Here is their story.

The Ascend to Man's Best Friend

Ever heard of the saying that “Dogs are Man's Best Friend”? Well, the first known account of that statement was first made by Fredrick II, King of Prussia in 1789. Enough about him, let us focus on the tale at hand. Dogs have been part of human history that date back to at least 13,000 BCE (With some researchers speculating that the dogs may have dated back to 100,000 years ago). Dogs were seen as protectors of agriculture, hunting companions, as well as many other variations throughout different cultures and time periods. Loyalty to the us homo-sapiens was a key trait that kept our bond strong, so strong that even part of our anatomy - our canines, resemble their name. This led to the Canis Familiaris (Scientific name for dogs) being featured in many myths and legends that have withstood the test of time.

Historical dog pictures are still dog pictures. And what better way to view them than Tumblr.

Our Tumblr Page: http://bahrkingawesomehistory.tumblr.com/

For those of you out there who really dig history and love dogs, we hope you loved the article as much as dogs love you. Please do not hesitate to share your experiences with dogs in the comments below. Stay pawsome.

 

References

If you are interested in where to find specific information from our blogpost, you may view the url links below:

http://www.ancient.eu/article/184/

Interesting Related Videos that inspired this post to be created:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tWWO-RtIDv0

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aDmzzREXI_g

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mCLQ_8I1paY

Mesopotamia (c. 5000 - 3500 BC)

http://www.matrifocus.com/IMB06/spotlight.htm

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Votive_dog_Louvre_AO4349.jpg

Ancient Egypt (c. 3100 - 2686 BC)

http://www.experience-ancient-egypt.com/ancient-egyptian-culture/ancient-egyptian-life/ancient-egyptian-dogs

http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/dogs.htm

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dog_Mummy,_305_B.C.E.-395_C.E.,05.308.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Anubis,_Nordisk_familjebok.png

Ancient China (2070 - 1600 BCE)

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:DogYearPaperCutting.jpg

http://giphy.com/gifs/dog-water-KJJPZ8Oa9JMIM

http://www.chinaculture.org/gb/en_chinaway/2003-11/19/content_44290.htm

https://pixabay.com/en/zodiac-signs-chinese-zodiac-250718/

Ancient Greece and Rome (800-500 BCE)

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Funeral_Stele_Depicting_a_Young_Hunter_with_his_Dog,_from_Pydna.jpg

http://penelope.uchicago.edu/~grout/encyclopaedia_romana/miscellanea/canes/canes.html

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pluto_Serapis_and_Persephone_Isis_Heraklion_museum.jpg

http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/Herakles/cerberus.html

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hades-et-Cerberus-III.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Heinrich_Aldegrever_-Hercules_und_Cerebus(1550,_San_Francisco).jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:5174.Diana_(Artemis)_mit_Hirschkuh-Dresdner_Rondell-Sanssouci_Steffen_Heilfort.JPG

https://hemlockandhawthorn.wordpress.com/2013/02/17/dogs-in-mythology/

Medieval Europe (5th - 15th Century)

http://www.historytoday.com/beatrice-johnston/dogs-yesteryear#sthash.hUXXFjfX.dpuf

http://www.catholic-saints.info/patron-saints/saint-roch.htm

http://www.midi-france.info/030399_roque.htm

http://britishlibrary.typepad.co.uk/digitisedmanuscripts/2013/09/dogs-medieval-mans-best-friend.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bayeux_hawking.jpg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Medieval_hounds2.png

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Saint_Roch_with_his_dog,_indicating_a_plague_bubo_on_his_gro_Wellcome_L0022461.jpg

Aztec (14th - 16th Century)

http://www.xoloitzcuintliclubofamerica.org/breed_history

http://www.mexicolore.co.uk/aztecs/flora-and-fauna/dog

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chihuahua1_bvdb.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Colima_-Dog_Effigy-Walters_20092051-_Three_Quarter_Left.jpg

Hope you enjoyed the post.