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Author’s Notes: The story recounts the interactions between a girl living on Mars in 2075 and the sassy AI developed by her grandmother. Danielle Gryce, the girl, had made a drunken promise that she would experience the Byzantine Empire simulation designed by her grandmother. Virginia, an old-school artificial intelligence who exists only as a voice, had locked up some of Danielle’s programs to coerce her into abiding by her promise. Through this adventure, Danielle will learn about how Byzantine art and architecture served as vessels through which religion and political messages were expressed. She will also realize how relatable an ancient civilization can be to Martian society.

Glorious Marius: Rise of the Great General

Glorious Marius: Rise of the Great General


Born in 157 BCE, in Arpinum, southern Latium, Marius was well-known as a Roman general who was the first to be elected consul 7 times. When Marius was running for consulship, he received tremendous support through his connections with the elites by marrying Julia, as well as from his troops by humbling himself. The Italian traders were also supportive of Marius as he was able to conquer King Jugurtha. Throughout his career, he implemented the Marian Reforms which provided lower class Romans a chance to be part of the army. This unified the Romans as one, thus minimising risks of lower class Romans rising up against the Republic. Furthermore, with this reform, Rome now has sufficient manpower in the army, ready to take on wars anytime.

Grac-chi [grak-ahy]: 'Great-guys' or nah?

Plebeians in the 2nd century BCE Rome were making desperate calls amidst numerous wars and the republic’s political and social conflicts. Due to slaves and land attainment, the Roman republic grew tremendously, leading to a segregated Roman political structure. On one side of the divide lies the Optimates, who preserve the current Roman state so they could constantly reap advantages from the republic’s expansion. On the other hand, the powerless plebeians were subjected to inequality due to debt, slavery and dispossession in Rome. 

After Death (Chinese Vs Roman)

Interested in knowing how the funeral processes took place in China and Rome? Well, you came to the right place. Both the Romans and Chinese have placed great importance to the dead. Both have taken great precautions to make the dead’s passage to the underworld as easy and safe as possible. To ensure, that the spirits of the dead ones do not wander endlessly looking for the underworld or be lost. It is interesting to compare how each of these rituals was important for them as much as it is important today. 

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Marc Antony and the rise of the Roman Empire

Ancient Roman politician and army general Marcus Antonius (Marc Antony in English; 83–30 B.C.E), was an ally ofJulius Caesar Although Antony played a significant role in turning Rome from a republic to an empire, his efforts have been overshadowed by Caesar’s achievements as the head general. Born into a family of generals, Marc Antony was destined to be a leader. Much of Ancient Roman history revolves around Julius Caesar’s dictatorship—and everything seemed to cease after his assassination. After Caesar’s death, Marc Antony actually went on to lead much of the Roman Republic (using the Second Triumvirate) before his suicide with Cleopatra in 30 B.C.E.